Fluorescence experiments are typically divided into two classes: those conducted on a large number of molecules, leading to ensemble-averaged fluorescence intensities, or those on the single-molecule level, which reveal intensity distributions over a large number of individually observed fluorophores. Ensemble fluorescence experiments are performed with spectro­fluorimeters which can be coupled to stopped-flow devises for time-resolved measurements. Single-molecule experiments are performed using fluorescence microscopes with laser excitation. Most frequently, this is in the form of total internal reflection microscopy for surface immobilized molecules.


Fluorescence Intensity


Fluorescence/Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Intensity


Fluorescence Anisotropy (Polarization)